Bergius process - Wikipedia

The coal is finely ground and dried in a stream of hot gas. The dry product is mixed with heavy oil recycled from the process. A catalyst is typically added to the mixture. A number of catalysts have been developed over the years, including tungsten or molybdenum sulfides, tin or nickel oleate, and others. Alternatively, iron sulphides present in the coal may have sufficient catalytic activity for the process, which was the original Bergius process. The mixture is pumped into a reactor. The reaction occurs at between 400 an…

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Coal liquefaction - Wikipedia

Specific liquefaction technologies generally fall into two categories: direct (DCL) and indirect liquefaction (ICL) processes. Direct processes are based on approaches such as carbonization, pyrolysis, and hydrogenation. Indirect liquefaction processes generally involve gasification of coal to a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, often known as synthesis gas or simply syngas. Using the Fischer–Tropsch process syngas is converted into liquid hydrocarbons.

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Hydrogenation Process - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

This chapter describes the heteroatom elimination in the hydrogenation process of brown coal derived liquids. The processes of fast low-temperature pyrolysis of brown coal provide relatively large amounts of liquid products. These products might be used as raw materials for production of syncrude oil.

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Process for hydrogenation of coal (Patent) | OSTI.GOV

OSTI.GOV Patent: Process for hydrogenation of coal. Process for hydrogenation of coal. Full Record; Other Related Research; Abstract ...

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Hydrogenation of coal (Patent) | OSTI.GOV

A process is disclosed for hydrogenating coal which has been mixed with oils, by bringing the coal slurry to the reaction pressure by pumping, heating the slurry and catalytically hydrogenating it with hydrogen. Some or all of the hot gases and vapors formed during hydrogenation are intimately re-mixed with the coal slurry in a plurality of stages.

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Coal hydrogenation and environmental health.

Planning of coal hydrogenation processes, such as liquifaction and gasification, requires consideration of public health implications. Commercial plants will require coal quantities greater than or equal to 20,000 tons/day and the large size of these plants calls for careful consideration of the potential health hazards from the wastes and products of such processes.

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Detailed Description of Coal Tar Hydrogenation Process ...

A new eight-lump kinetic model containing 19 kinetic constants is proposed to describe coal tar hydrogenation. The model contains lump 1 (>300 °C), lump 2 (250–300 °C), lump 3 (200–250 °C), lump 4 (20–200 °C), diesel, gasoline, gas, and coke as lumps. The kinetic parameters were determined using least-squares regression analysis of the experimental data, obtained in two-stage fixed ...

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Coal liquefaction - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader

16-6-2020· Coal liquefaction is a process of converting coal into liquid hydrocarbons: liquid fuels and petrochemicals. This process is often known as Coal to X, where X can be many different hydrocarbon-based products. However, the most common process chain is Coal to Liquid Fuels (CTL).

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US3030297A - Hydrogenation of coal - Google Patents

coal hydrogen hydrogenation liquid temperature Prior art date 1958-03-11 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) Expired - Lifetime Application number US720684A Inventor Wilburn C Schroeder

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US3926775A - Hydrogenation of coal - Google Patents

Coal or other solid carbonaceous material is fed under a hydrogenation pressure of about 1,000 to 5,000 psi, in the absence of a pasting oil, to a closed, cyclic, high pressure system including a hydrogenation reactor and a reformer, and is contacted, preferably in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, with a stream of superheated steam, hydrogen and carbon monoxide-containing gases which ...

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Process for the hydrogenation of coal (Patent) | OSTI.GOV

OSTI.GOV Patent: Process for the hydrogenation of coal. Process for the hydrogenation of coal. Full Record; Other Related Research

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Hydrogenation - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Hydrogenation involves increasing the ratio of hydrogen to carbon and converting the coal to liquid fuels by adding hydrogen from some external source. The first step in the process, in many operations, is to dissolve at least part of the organic matter of the coal in a suitable solvent, such as coal tar oil at several hundred degrees centigrade.

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Hydrogenation of Coal and Tar - Page III - UNT Digital …

From Abstract: "This bulletin traces the development of high-pressure, coal and tar hydrogenation technology, based on intensive review of the pertinent literature. The bulletin was written as a part of the Bureau of Mines research program on synthetic liquid fuels. It covers the history and economics of the process; the chemical aspect of hydrogenation of coal, tar, and middle oil; the ...

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Process for hydrogenation of coal - WUERFEL; HELMUT

20-12-1983· Process for hydrogenation of coal . United States Patent 4421632 . Abstract: Coal is mixed with emulsifier oil to form a slurry. The coal slurry is pumped to reaction pressure, heated and subjected to catalytically accelerated hydrogenation in the …

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Hydrogenation of Coal: a French Process - NASA/ADS

adshelp[at]cfa.harvard.edu The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX16AC86A

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Liquefaction of Coal - ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SUPPORT ...

Hydrogenation. Coal liquefaction, in substance, is a process about how to control the extent of bond scission to the desired molecular size and, and how to promote efficiently and effectively the hydrogenation reaction. Because of low atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon in coal constituents, adequate amount of hydrogen supplied

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US Patent for Coal hydrogenation with selective recycle of ...

Coal is hydrogenated in an upflow, random motion, gas-liquid-catalyst process in which the heavy liquids (800.degree. F to 1000.degree. F) are recycled to the reactor to optimize production of preferred 400.degree.-800.degree. F boiling range end product liquids.The optimization is accomplished by not recycling to the reactor any liquid fraction boiling between about 600.degree. and 800.degree.

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Direct Coal Hydrogenation Indiana

Direct Coal Hydrogenation . Indiana . CCRC Confidential The Company • The ... • The DCH process itself is Carbon neutral because it does not involve combustion or gasification of Coal • DCH takes advantage of the Natural Gas revolution since 48% of the

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Coal liquefaction - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader

16-6-2020· Coal liquefaction is a process of converting coal into liquid hydrocarbons: liquid fuels and petrochemicals. This process is often known as Coal to X, where X can be many different hydrocarbon-based products. However, the most common process chain is Coal to Liquid Fuels (CTL).

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Development, Status, and Prospects of Coal Tar ...

Focused on the technical features with a detailed analysis and comparison of different hydrogenation technologies, the main problems in the development of coal tar hydrogenation are described. The developments in process technology, coal tar refinement, and deep processing products will heavily influece the direction of coal tar hydrogenation in the future.

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Hydrogenation of Coal and Tar - UNT Digital Library

From Abstract: "This bulletin traces the development of high-pressure, coal and tar hydrogenation technology, based on intensive review of the pertinent literature. The bulletin was written as a part of the Bureau of Mines research program on synthetic liquid fuels. It covers the history and economics of the process; the chemical aspect of hydrogenation of coal, tar, and middle oil; the ...

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Hydrogenation of coal - SCHROEDER; WILBURN C.

16-12-1975· A process for hydrogenating coal comprising: continuously circulating a stream of hydrogen-containing gases including CO and steam at coal hydrogenation pressure between about 1000 to 5000 psi through a closed cyclic system including a hydrogenation zone and an oxygen-steam reforming zone, adding coal in the substantial absence of a pasting medium under system pressure to the hydrogenation ...

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HYDROGENATION | meaning in the Cambridge English …

hydrogenation definition: 1. the process of producing hydrogenated fats 2. the process of producing hydrogenated fats. Learn more.

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Hydrogenation of Coal: a French Process - NASA/ADS

adshelp[at]cfa.harvard.edu The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX16AC86A

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Cyclic hydrogenation process for coal tar hydrogenation ...

Download Citation | Cyclic hydrogenation process for coal tar hydrogenation tail oil | A large amount of unconverted oil, that is, hydrogenation tail oil can be obtained from once hydrogenation of ...

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Liquefaction of Coal - ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SUPPORT ...

Hydrogenation. Coal liquefaction, in substance, is a process about how to control the extent of bond scission to the desired molecular size and, and how to promote efficiently and effectively the hydrogenation reaction. Because of low atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon in coal constituents, adequate amount of hydrogen supplied

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Investigation of Coal Hydrogenation Using Deuterium as …

A hydrogenation index (HI) and exchange index (EI) were formulated to measure the amount of deuterium incorporated due to hydrogenation and exchange reactions, respectively. In the coal-deuterium system, deuterium incorporation was found to vary both with product fraction and with structural position.

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Gasification of hydrogenation residues using the Texaco ...

In the initial test phase, which has meanwhile been more or less concluded, the following hydrogenation residues were used: • 9000 tonnes of solid residues from the coal--oil plant in Bottrop originating from the hydrogenation of Westerholt and Prosper gas coals, • 3500 tonnes of residue from the EDS coal hydrogenation plant, and • 3000 tonnes of liquid residue from the Bottrop plant.

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Development, Status, and Prospects of Coal Tar ...

Focused on the technical features with a detailed analysis and comparison of different hydrogenation technologies, the main problems in the development of coal tar hydrogenation are described. The developments in process technology, coal tar refinement, and deep processing products will heavily influece the direction of coal tar hydrogenation in the future.

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Coal utilization - Liquefaction | Britannica

Coal utilization - Coal utilization - Liquefaction: Liquefaction is the process of converting solid coal into liquid fuels. The main difference between naturally occurring petroleum fuels and coal is the deficiency of hydrogen in the latter: coal contains only about half the amount found in petroleum. Therefore, conversion of coal into liquid fuels involves the addition of hydrogen.

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